Higher-harmonic deployment of trailing-edge flaps for rotor-performance enhancement and vibration reduction

Frank Kody, Ethan Corle, Mark D. Maughmer, Sven Schmitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


A computational method involving evolutionary-based optimization to provide an optimal set of higher-harmonic deployment schedules for a multisegment trailing-edge flap is investigated. The trailing-edge flap is added to the UH- 60A's rotor, with the flap's span, deflection angles, and start/end deployment azimuth positions all optimized to minimize the total rotor power and the resulting hub vibratory loads. The formal optimization effort is carried out through the coupling of a comprehensive analysis code and one of two evolutionary algorithm-based optimizers. With regard to a single-segment flap, peak power savings over the flight envelope reached 9.5% (at an advance ratio of 0.30) with associated out-of-plane and in-plane hub vibration reductions of 66 and 22%, respectively. The dual-segment trailing-edge flap optimization with a span limitation yielded power savings of 8.9% at the same flight condition. Multi-objective optimizations were performed at a target flight condition with an advance ratio of 0.3 for a total of four objectives: minimizing rotor power and all three hub vibratory loads. One optimum solution found 6.7% power savings, 68% out-of-plane hub vibration reductions, and 53% in-plane hub vibration reductions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)333-342
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Aircraft
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aerospace Engineering


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