Advances in electrochemical methodology over the past 30 years have allowed chemicalmeasurements to bemade with decreasing amounts of analyte and at smaller spatial dimensions. This has allowed the investigation of single cells and single vesicles in cells either during release of chemical transmitter or separately. The cellular event called exocytosis can be measured with amperometry or cyclic voltammetry as discovered by Wightman and first published in 1990. In addition, the measurement of vesicle contents with electrochemistry is a new approach we have termed electrochemical cytometry. This involves isolation of intact vesicles, separation of the vesicles, and then lysing followed by coulometric analysis of the electroactive vesicle content. In this review, we will highlight work done by us and by others to discuss measurements of exocytosis at single cells and measurements at artificial cell models for studying the biophysical properties of vesicle membrane dynamics and lipid nanotubes connecting artificial cells using electrochemical methods.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering