Structured electromagnetic waves carrying nonvanishing orbital angular momentum (OAM) have recently opened up alternative frontiers in the field of wave physics, holding great promise for a wide range of potential applications. By leveraging geometric phases originating from spin-to-orbital interactions, spin-dependent wave phenomena can be created, leading to a more versatile realm of dispersionless wave-front manipulation. However, the currently available transmissive vortex-beam generators suffer from a narrow bandwidth, require an optically thick device profile, or are limited by a low efficiency, severely restricting their integration into systems and/or widespread usage for practical applications. We present the design methodology and a physical analysis and complete experimental characterization of a class of millimeter-wave Pancharatnam-Berry transmit-arrays with a thickness of about λ0/3, which enables highly efficient generation and separation of spin-controlled vortex beams over a broad bandwidth, achieving an unprecedented peak efficiency of 88% for a single vortex beam and 71% for dual vortex beams. The proposed transmit-array, which is capable of providing two-dimensional OAM multiplexing and demultiplexing without normal-mode background interference, overcomes all previous roadblocks and paves the way for high-efficiency electromagnetic vortex-beam generation as well as other wave-front-shaping devices from microwave frequencies to optical wavelengths.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Physics and Astronomy