Highly Reliable BaTiO3-Polyphenylene Oxide Nanocomposite Dielectrics via Cold Sintering

Takao Sada, Kosuke Tsuji, Arnaud Ndayishimiye, Zhongming Fan, Yoshihiro Fujioka, Clive A. Randall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


In the design of the ceramic capacitor, high capacitance, temperature stability, and high operating voltage must be balanced against the failure mechanisms of degradation. Cold sintering is used to develop dense BaTiO3 – poly (p-phenylene oxide) (PPO) nanocomposites with PPO throughout the grain boundary microstructure. To obtain the desired PPO distribution, a process is introduced that distributes the polymers on the BaTiO3 powders prior to the cold sintering process. With the cold sintering enabled by a Ba(OH)2·8H2O transient phase, theoretical densities ≈95% could be obtained at a sintering temperature ≈225 °C with up to 15 vol% PPO content. The rationale is to influence the local electric field distribution within the dielectric, to maximize resistivity (1013–1014 Ω cm) and degradation resistance, minimize temperature dependence of permittivity, and minimize the field dependent permittivity. All these properties are investigated as a function of the volume fraction of PPO. The magnitude of the permittivity follows a logarithmic mixing law: 1460 to 680 for the nanocomposite with 5 to 15 vol% PPO content, respectively, at room temperature. The BaTiO3-PPO composite dielectrics are contrasted under accelerated lifetime testing conditions, noting superior resistance toward degradation kinetics, indicating an important breakthrough opportunity towards the development of high reliability dielectrics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2100963
JournalAdvanced Materials Interfaces
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 23 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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