Hormonal Responses of Multiset Versus Single-Set Heavy-Resistance Exercise Protocols

Lincoln Allan Gotshalk, Chad C. Loebel, Bradley C. Nindl, Margot Putukian, Wayne J. Sebastianelli, Robert U. Newton, Keijo Häkkinen, William J. Kraemer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

164 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to compare serum growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and whole blood lactate (L) responses to single set (IS) versus multiple set (3S) heavy-resistance exercise protocols. Eight recreationally weight-trained men completed two identical resistance exercise workouts (1S vs. 3S). Blood was obtained preexercise (PRE), immediately postexercise (0P), and 5 min (5P), 15 min (15P), 30 min (30P) and 60 min (60P) postexercise and was analysed for GH, T, C, and L levels. For 1S and 3S, GH, L, and T significantly increased from PRE to 0P and remained significantly elevated to 60P, except for JS. For GH, T, and L, 3S showed significantly greater increases compared to IS. For C, 3S and 1S were iricreased significantly from resting at 0P, 5P, and 15P; 3S increased compared to 1S at 5P, 15P and 30P. Higher volumes of total work produce significantly greater increases in circulating anabolic hormones during the recovery phase following exercise.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)244-255
Number of pages12
JournalCanadian Journal of Applied Physiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1997

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Hormonal Responses of Multiset Versus Single-Set Heavy-Resistance Exercise Protocols'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this