HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS Method for the Rapid and Sensitive Quantitation of 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline in Single Rice Kernels

Helene Hopfer, Farman Jodari, Florence Negre-Zakharov, Phillip L. Wylie, Susan E. Ebeler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Demand for aromatic rice varieties (e.g., Basmati) is increasing in the US. Aromatic varieties typically have elevated levels of the aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). Due to its very low aroma threshold, analysis of 2AP provides a useful screening tool for rice breeders. Methods for 2AP analysis in rice should quantitate 2AP at or below sensory threshold level, avoid artifactual 2AP generation, and be able to analyze single rice kernels in cases where only small sample quantities are available (e.g., breeding trials). We combined headspace solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS) for analysis of 2AP, using an extraction temperature of 40 °C and a stable isotopologue as internal standard. 2AP calibrations were linear between the concentrations of 53 and 5380 pg/g, with detection limits below the sensory threshold of 2AP. Forty-eight aromatic and nonaromatic, milled rice samples from three harvest years were screened with the method for their 2AP content, and overall reproducibility, observed for all samples, ranged from 5% for experimental aromatic lines to 33% for nonaromatic lines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4114-4120
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Issue number20
StatePublished - May 25 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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