Hybrid ion exchange (IX) and biological processes have been developed for various water and wastewater treatment applications. These hybrid systems integrate multiple physical, chemical, biological, hydrodynamics, and substrate transport processes to improve the treatment efficiencies and system stability. The mathematical description of the individual process has been well established previously; however, there is a lack of a holistic review and guidelines to develop hybrid models for different treatment systems. In this paper, we summarize the applications of hybrid IX and biological systems, critically review the representative individual process models, and propose the framework to integrate these models for the hybrid process. Additionally, we provide a comprehensive review of the equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic models for the IX process and the key biological process models, along with their applied scenarios. Advanced data-driven modelling and its combination with mechanistic models are also discussed to overcome the drawbacks in conventional modeling approach. We highlight emerging techniques that would lead to higher fidelity models. This review provides a comprehensive guideline for the model development of hybrid systems and presents future research directions to build robust systems.
|Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology
|Accepted/In press - 2023
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
- Waste Management and Disposal