Purpose of Review: The central nervous system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and consequently arterial blood pressure. Key hypothalamic regions sense and integrate neurohumoral signals to subsequently alter intake (thirst and salt appetite) and output (renal excretion via neuroendocrine and autonomic function). Here, we review recent findings that provide new insight into such mechanisms that may represent new therapeutic targets. Recent Findings: Implementation of cutting edge neuroscience approaches such as opto- and chemogenetics highlight pivotal roles of circumventricular organs to impact body fluid homeostasis. Key signaling mechanisms within these areas include the N-terminal variant of transient receptor potential vannilloid type-1, NaX, epithelial sodium channel, brain electroneutral transporters, and non-classical actions of vasopressin. Summary: Despite the identification of several new mechanisms, future studies need to better define the neurochemical phenotype and molecular profiles of neurons within circumventricular organs for future therapeutic potential.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine