Identification of prescription opioid misuse and abuse behaviors and risk factors in chronic pain patients using the Prescription Opioid Misuse and Abuse Questionnaire (POMAQ)

Karin S. Coyne, Alexandra I. Barsdorf, Jean Yves Mazière, Renee F. Pierson, Stephanie T. Lanza, John T. Farrar, CAPT A.P.T.H.J. Gelfand, Leslie N. Porter, Sidney H. Schnoll, Stephen F. Butler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: To identify patient risk factors associated with prescription opioid misuse and abuse as well as groupings of misuse and abuse behaviors as measured by the Prescription Opioid Misuse and Abuse Questionnaire (POMAQ). Methods: Adults with chronic pain requiring long-term treatment with opioids completed the POMAQ and other study questionnaires. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to examine underlying subgroups exhibiting particular risk profiles. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics were examined as covariates and the concordance between the identified latent classes at-risk classifications and the POMAQ clinical scoring algorithm was assessed. Results: Analysis of data from 809 patients revealed four classes: “chronic pain, low risk” (n = 473, low to no prevalence of POMAQ behaviors), “chronic pain, comorbid condition” (n = 152, high prevalence of anti-anxiety, sleeping pill, and antihistamine use), “at risk” (n = 154, taking more opioids than prescribed and drinking alcohol with opioids more frequently than other groups), and “high risk” (n = 30, highest prevalence of each behavior). The “high risk” group was associated with being younger, less educated, and unemployed compared to other groups. When examining the LCA classes by groups defined by the original POMAQ clinical scoring algorithm, the “high risk” class had the highest proportion of participants identified with abuse behaviors (46.7%), compared to just 4.7% in the “chronic pain, low risk” group. Conclusions: Findings suggest there are four distinct subgroups of patients defined by chronic opioid misuse and abuse behaviors and support the use of the POMAQ to identify risk factors associated with prescription opioid misuse and abuse.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)441-450
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Medical Research and Opinion
Volume39
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Medicine

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