Identifying solutions to psychological insulin resistance: An international study

William H. Polonsky, Lawrence Fisher, Danielle Hessler, Heather Stuckey, Frank J. Snoek, Tricia Tang, Norbert Hermanns, Xavier Mundet, Maria Silva, Jackie Sturt, Kentaro Okazaki, Irene Hadjiyianni, Dachuang Cao, Jasmina Ivanova, Urvi Desai, Magaly Perez-Nieves

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Aims: To identify actions of healthcare professionals (HCPs) that facilitate the transition to insulin therapy (IT) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) adults. Methods: Included were T2Ds in seven countries (n = 594) who reported initial IT reluctance but eventually began IT. An online survey included 38 possible HCP actions: T2Ds indicated which may have occurred and their helpfulness. Also reported were delays in IT start after initial recommendation and any period of IT discontinuation. Results: Exploratory factor analysis of HCP actions yielded five factors: “Explained Insulin Benefits” (EIB), “Dispelled Insulin Myths” (DIM), “Demonstrated the Injection Process” (DIP), “Collaborative Style” (CS) and “Authoritarian Style” (AS). Highest levels of helpfulness occurred for DIP, EIB and CS; lowest for AS. Participants who rated DIP as helpful were less likely to delay IT than those who rated DIP as less helpful (OR = 0.75, p = 0.01); participants who rated CS and EIB as helpful were less likely to interrupt IT than those who rated these as less helpful (OR = 0.55, p < 0.01; OR = 0.51, p = 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: Three key HCP actions to facilitate IT initiation were identified as helpful and were associated with more successful initiation and persistence. These findings may aid the development of interventions to address reluctance to initiating IT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)307-314
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Diabetes and its Complications
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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