Image-enhanced bipolaron formation at organic semiconductor/electrode interfaces

Jonathon R. Schrecengost, Sukrit Mukhopadhyay, Noel C. Giebink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We explore the image charge interaction for organic semiconductor bipolarons near a conducting interface and find that the cross term between one of the constituent charges and the image of its neighbor stabilizes the bipolaron by up to ∼0.3 eV, dramatically increasing the concentration of this species near the interface. Using density functional theory calculations for the common hole transport molecule N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine, we validate a simple point charge description of this effect and incorporate it within an interface energy level alignment model to predict the density of polarons and bipolarons near the interface. We find that the image effect greatly enhances bipolaron formation in the first few monolayers, leading to the expectation that bipolarons account for more than 1% of the total interface charge in many cases of practical interest. This result reinforces the notion that bipolarons are robust near the contacts of many organic semiconductor devices and thus helps to rationalize their involvement in the phenomenon of unipolar organic magnetoresistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number165311
JournalPhysical Review B
Issue number16
StatePublished - Oct 21 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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