Imaging vasodynamics in the Awake mouse brain with two-photon microscopy

Andy Y. Shih, Patrick J. Drew, David Kleinfeld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


In vivo two-photon laser-scanning microscopy is widely used to study brain structure and function in mice. Recent studies using awake mice have revealed a rich dynamism in cerebrovascular flow and neural activity that is significantly masked by anesthesia. Imaging of awake animals is necessary to fully understand neurovascular coupling during naturalistic sensorimotor activity. We provide detailed instructions to rigorously quantify blood flow at the level of single cortical vessels in awake mice. This includes a description of surgical techniques to obtain optical access to the cortex, improved head-restraint devices to reduce motion artifacts, and robust algorithms to quantify red blood cell flow and vessel caliber. Finally, we provide examples on how these techniques are used to measure sensory-evoked cortical hemodynamics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-73
Number of pages19
StatePublished - 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Neuroscience


Dive into the research topics of 'Imaging vasodynamics in the Awake mouse brain with two-photon microscopy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this