Objective: To evaluate the impact of a fruit and vegetable prescription program on diabetes and cardiovascular risk outcomes. Design: Single-arm pre-post study. Setting: Primary care clinic in a community-based hospital. Participants: Adults with type 2 diabetes (n = 97), aged > 18 years, with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 7.0%, and a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 25 kg/m2. Intervention: Over 7 months, participants received monthly group-based diabetes self-management education (DSME) and monthly vouchers ($28–$140/month) redeemable for fruits and vegetables at local markets. Analysis: Biomarker changes (HbA1c, BMI, and blood pressure) were assessed with paired t tests. Voucher distribution and redemption were tracked, and voucher redemption rates were calculated. Linear mixed-effect regression models tested associations between biomarkers, voucher redemption rates, and participant characteristics. Results: There was a −1.3% (P < 0.001) postprogram change in HbA1c. Reduced HbA1c was associated with higher voucher redemption rates (P = 0.032) and a change in diabetes medications (P = 0.003). There were no associations with BMI, but blood pressure was positively associated with voucher redemption. Conclusions and Implications: Fruit and vegetable prescription programs may improve diabetes outcomes by incentivizing DSME uptake and retention. Future randomized trials are warranted to identify strategies to improve DSME engagement and voucher redemption rates and assess mechanisms through which these programs influence health outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1008-1017
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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