Impact of cereal rye cover crop on the fate of preemergence herbicides flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone and control of Amaranthus spp. in soybean

Jose Nunes, Nicholas J. Arneson, John Wallace, Karla Gage, Eric Miller, Sarah Lancaster, Thomas Mueller, Rodrigo Werle

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Preemergence herbicides associated with cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop (hereafter cereal rye) can be an effective waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer.] and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) management strategy in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production. Delaying cereal rye termination until soybean planting (planting green) optimizes biomass production and weed suppression but might further impact the fate of preemergence herbicides. Limited research is available on the fate of preemergence herbicides applied over living cereal rye in the planting green system. Field experiments were conducted in Illinois, Kansas, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin to evaluate the fate of flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone and Amaranthus spp. residual control under different cover crop management practices in soybean in 2021 and 2022 (8 site-years). A flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone herbicide premix was applied preemergence at soybean planting under no-till without cereal rye, cereal rye early terminated before soybean planting, and cereal rye terminated at soybean planting. Flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone concentrations in the soil were quantified at 0, 7, and 21 d after treatment (DAT), and Amaranthus spp. density was determined at postemergence herbicide application. The presence of cereal rye biomass intercepted flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone at preemergence application and reduced concentration in the soil when compared with no-till, mainly at 0 DAT. Main differences in herbicide concentration were observed between no-till and cereal rye treatments rather than cereal rye termination times. Despite reducing herbicide concentration in the soil, the presence of the cereal rye biomass did not affect early-season residual Amaranthus spp. control. The adoption of effective preemergence herbicides associated with a properly managed cereal rye cover crop is an effective option for integrated Amaranthus spp. management programs in soybean production systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)493-505
Number of pages13
JournalWeed Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 18 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science

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