Impact of Penicillin Allergy Label on Clinical Outcomes of Pneumonia in Children

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Abstract

Background: Penicillin (PCN) allergy label, reported in approximately 5% of children, influences antibiotic choice and prolongs hospital stay. To our knowledge, the impact of PCN allergy label on clinical outcomes of pneumonia in children is not well characterized. Objectives: To investigate the impact of PCN allergy label on clinical outcomes of pneumonia in children. Methods: In this propensity score–matched cohort study, we used the TriNetX research network, a population-based database, to compare the 30-day risk of hospitalization, need for intensive level of care, and acute respiratory failure from pneumonia between pediatric patients (aged 1-17 years) with and without a PCN allergy label after matching the 2 cohorts for demographic and medical comorbidities. Antibiotic prescription patterns were also contrasted. Results: When comparing 3793 pediatric patients with pneumonia labeled with a PCN allergy with matched children without a PCN allergy label, PCN allergy label was associated with a higher risk of hospitalization (relative risk [RR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.23), acute respiratory failure (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.17-1.39), and need for intensive level of care (RR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.15-1.84). PCN allergy label resulted in overutilization of broader-spectrum antibiotics and increased complications including cutaneous drug reactions (RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.31-4.52) and Clostridioides difficile infection (RR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.14-4.44). Conclusion: Children with a PCN allergy label are more likely to be hospitalized, receive broader-spectrum antibiotics, and develop acute respiratory failure from pneumonia. Delabeling may offer a way to lessen morbidity from pneumonia in children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1899-1906.e2
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
Volume11
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy

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