Improving spelling for at-risk kindergartners through element skill frequency building

Douglas E. Kostewicz, Richard M. Kubina, Kaitlyn M. Brennan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


A student's ability to spell affects literacy outcomes. Students profit from explicit spelling instruction but may also benefit from frequency building or systematic practice. The method of frequency building leads toward effortless performance or behavioral fluency. Reaching certain frequencies of behavior produces a critical learning outcome called application. The current study focused on the effects of building element spelling behaviors for at-risk kindergartners and the subsequent application to a compound spelling skill. Visual and quantitative analysis suggest a clear experimental effect between the attainment of performance criterion for letter sounds, letter naming, and sequencing on students' spelling behavior. A discussion of the results precedes future research directions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-144
Number of pages14
JournalBehavioral Interventions
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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