In situ estimation of ice crystal properties at the South Pole using LED calibration data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

Rasha Abbasi, Markus Ackermann, Jenni Adams, Nakul Aggarwal, Juanan Aguilar, Markus Ahlers, Maryon Ahrens, Jean Marco Alameddine, Antonio Augusto Alves Junior, Najia Moureen Binte Amin, Karen Andeen, Tyler Anderson, Gisela Anton, Carlos Argüelles, Yosuke Ashida, Sofia Athanasiadou, Spencer Axani, Xinhua Bai, Aswathi Balagopal V, Moreno BaricevicSteve Barwick, Vedant Basu, Ryan Bay, James Beatty, Karl Heinz Becker, Julia Becker Tjus, Jakob Beise, Chiara Bellenghi, Samuel Benda, Segev Benzvi, David Berley, Elisa Bernardini, Dave Besson, Gary Binder, Daniel Bindig, Erik Blaufuss, Summer Blot, Federico Bontempo, Julia Book, Jürgen Borowka, Caterina Boscolo Meneguolo, Sebastian Böser, Olga Botner, Jakob Böttcher, Etienne Bourbeau, Jim Braun, Bennett Brinson, Jannes Brostean-Kaiser, Ryan Burley, Raffaela Busse, Michael Campana, Erin Carnie-Bronca, Chujie Chen, Zheyang Chen, Dmitry Chirkin, Koun Choi, Brian Clark, Lew Classen, Alan Coleman, Gabriel Collin, Amy Connolly, Janet Conrad, Paul Coppin, Pablo Correa, Stefan Countryman, Doug Cowen, Robert Cross, Christian Dappen, Pranav Dave, Catherine De Clercq, James Delaunay, Diyaselis Delgado López, Hans Dembinski, Kunal Deoskar, Abhishek Desai, Paolo Desiati, Krijn De Vries, Gwenhael De Wasseige, Tyce Deyoung, Alejandro Diaz, Juan Carlos Díaz-Vélez, Markus Dittmer, Hrvoje Dujmovic, Michael Duvernois, Thomas Ehrhardt, Philipp Eller, Ralph Engel, Hannah Erpenbeck, John Evans, Paul Evenson, Kwok Lung Fan, Ali Fazely, Anatoli Fedynitch, Nora Feigl, Sebastian Fiedlschuster, Aaron Fienberg, Chad Finley, Leander Fischer, Derek Fox, Anna Franckowiak, Elizabeth Friedman, Alexander Fritz, Philipp Fürst, Tom Gaisser, Jay Gallagher, Erik Ganster, Alfonso Garcia, Simone Garrappa, Lisa Gerhardt, Ava Ghadimi, Christian Glaser, Thorsten Glüsenkamp, Theo Glauch, Noah Goehlke, Javier Gonzalez, Sreetama Goswami, Darren Grant, Shannon Gray, Timothée Grégoire, Spencer Griswold, Christoph Günther, Pascal Gutjahr, Christian Haack, Allan Hallgren, Robert Halliday, Lasse Halve, Francis Halzen, Hassane Hamdaoui, Martin Ha Minh, Kael Hanson, John Hardin, Alexander Harnisch, Patrick Hatch, Andreas Haungs, Klaus Helbing, Jonas Hellrung, Felix Henningsen, Lars Heuermann, Stephanie Hickford, Colton Hill, Gary Hill, Kara Hoffman, Kotoyo Hoshina, Wenjie Hou, Thomas Huber, Klas Hultqvist, Mirco Hünnefeld, Raamis Hussain, Karolin Hymon, Seongjin In, Nadege Iovine, Aya Ishihara, Matti Jansson, George Japaridze, Minjin Jeong, Miaochen Jin, Ben Jones, Donghwa Kang, Woosik Kang, Xinyue Kang, Alexander Kappes, David Kappesser, Leonora Kardum, Timo Karg, Martina Karl, Albrecht Karle, Uli Katz, Matt Kauer, John Kelley, Ali Kheirandish, Ken'Ichi Kin, Joanna Kiryluk, Spencer Klein, Alina Kochocki, Ramesh Koirala, Hermann Kolanoski, Tomas Kontrimas, Lutz Köpke, Claudio Kopper, Jason Koskinen, Paras Koundal, Michael Kovacevich, Marek Kowalski, Tetiana Kozynets, Emmett Krupczak, Emma Kun, Naoko Kurahashi, Neha Lad, Cristina Lagunas Gualda, Michael Larson, Frederik Lauber, Jeffrey Lazar, Jiwoong Lee, Kayla Leonard, Agnieszka Leszczyńska, Massimiliano Lincetto, Qinrui Liu, Maria Liubarska, Elisa Lohfink, Christina Love, Cristian Jesus Lozano Mariscal, Lu Lu, Francesco Lucarelli, Andrew Ludwig, William Luszczak, Yang Lyu, Wing Yan Ma, Jim Madsen, Kendall Mahn, Yuya Makino, Sarah Mancina, Wenceslas Marie Sainte, Ioana Mariş, Szabolcs Marka, Zsuzsa Marka, Matthew Marsee, Ivan Martinez-Soler, Reina Maruyama, Thomas McElroy, Frank McNally, James Vincent Mead, Kevin Meagher, Sarah Mechbal, Andres Medina, Maximilian Meier, Stephan Meighen-Berger, Yarno Merckx, Jessie Micallef, Daniela Mockler, Teresa Montaruli, Roger Moore, Bob Morse, Marjon Moulai, Tista Mukherjee, Richard Naab, Ryo Nagai, Uwe Naumann, Amid Nayerhoda, Jannis Necker, Miriam Neumann, Hans Niederhausen, Mehr Nisa, Sarah Nowicki, Anna Obertacke Pollmann, Marie Oehler, Bob Oeyen, Alex Olivas, Rasmus Orsoe, Jesse Osborn, Erin O'Sullivan, Hershal Pandya, Daria Pankova, Nahee Park, Grant Parker, Ek Narayan Paudel, Larissa Paul, Carlos Pérez De Los Heros, Lilly Peters, Josh Peterson, Saskia Philippen, Sarah Pieper, Alex Pizzuto, Matthias Plum, Yuiry Popovych, Alessio Porcelli, Maria Prado Rodriguez, Brandon Pries, Rachel Procter-Murphy, Gerald Przybylski, Christoph Raab, John Rack-Helleis, Mohamed Rameez, Katherine Rawlins, Zoe Rechav, Abdul Rehman, Patrick Reichherzer, Giovanni Renzi, Elisa Resconi, Simeon Reusch, Wolfgang Rhode, Mike Richman, Benedikt Riedel, Ella Roberts, Sally Robertson, Steven Rodan, Gerrit Roellinghoff, Martin Rongen, Carsten Rott, Tim Ruhe, Li Ruohan, Dirk Ryckbosch, Devyn Rysewyk Cantu, Ibrahim Safa, Julian Saffer, Daniel Salazar-Gallegos, Pranav Sampathkumar, Sebastian Sanchez Herrera, Alexander Sandrock, Marcos Santander, Sourav Sarkar, Subir Sarkar, Merlin Schaufel, Harald Schieler, Sebastian Schindler, Berit Schlüter, Torsten Schmidt, Judith Schneider, Frank Schröder, Lisa Schumacher, Georg Schwefer, Steve Sclafani, Dave Seckel, Surujhdeo Seunarine, Ankur Sharma, Shefali Shefali, Nobuhiro Shimizu, Manuel Silva, Barbara Skrzypek, Ben Smithers, Robert Snihur, Jan Soedingrekso, Andreas Søgaard, Dennis Soldin, Christian Spannfellner, Glenn Spiczak, Christian Spiering, Michael Stamatikos, Todor Stanev, Robert Stein, Thorsten Stezelberger, Timo Stürwald, Thomas Stuttard, Greg Sullivan, Ignacio Taboada, Samvel Ter-Antonyan, Will Thompson, Jessie Thwaites, Serap Tilav, Kirsten Tollefson, Christoph Tönnis, Simona Toscano, Delia Tosi, Alexander Trettin, Chun Fai Tung, Roxanne Turcotte, Jean Pierre Twagirayezu, Bunheng Ty, Martin Unland Elorrieta, Karriem Upshaw, Nora Valtonen-Mattila, Justin Vandenbroucke, Nick Van Eijndhoven, David Vannerom, Jakob Van Santen, Javi Vara, Joshua Veitch-Michaelis, Stef Verpoest, Doga Veske, Christian Walck, Winnie Wang, Timothy Blake Watson, Chris Weaver, Philip Weigel, Andreas Weindl, Jan Weldert, Chris Wendt, Johannes Werthebach, Mark Weyrauch, Nathan Whitehorn, Christopher Wiebusch, Nathan Willey, Dawn Williams, Martin Wolf, Gerrit Wrede, Johan Wulff, Xianwu Xu, Juan Pablo Yanez, Emre Yildizci, Shigeru Yoshida, Shiqi Yu, Tianlu Yuan, Zelong Zhang, Pavel Zhelnin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory instruments about 1ĝ€¯km3 of deep, glacial ice at the geographic South Pole. It uses 5160 photomultipliers to detect Cherenkov light emitted by charged relativistic particles. An unexpected light propagation effect observed by the experiment is an anisotropic attenuation, which is aligned with the local flow direction of the ice. We examine birefringent light propagation through the polycrystalline ice microstructure as a possible explanation for this effect. The predictions of a first-principles model developed for this purpose, in particular curved light trajectories resulting from asymmetric diffusion, provide a qualitatively good match to the main features of the data. This in turn allows us to deduce ice crystal properties. Since the wavelength of the detected light is short compared to the crystal size, these crystal properties include not only the crystal orientation fabric, but also the average crystal size and shape, as a function of depth. By adding small empirical corrections to this first-principles model, a quantitatively accurate description of the optical properties of the IceCube glacial ice is obtained. In this paper, we present the experimental signature of ice optical anisotropy observed in IceCube light-emitting diode (LED) calibration data, the theory and parameterization of the birefringence effect, the fitting procedures of these parameterizations to experimental data, and the inferred crystal properties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)75-102
Number of pages28
JournalCryosphere
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 4 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Earth-Surface Processes

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