In-situ phase mapping and direct observations of phase tranformations during arc welding of 1045 steel

J. W. Elmer, T. A. Palmer

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In-situ spatially resolved X-ray diffraction (SRXRD) experiments were performed during gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of AISI 1045 C-Mn steel. Ferrite (α) and austenite (γ) phases were identified and quantified in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) from the real time SRXRD data. The results were compiled with weld temperatures calculated using a coupled thermal fluids model to create a phase map of the HAZ Kinetics of the α → γ transformation during weld heating and the reverse γ → α transformation during weld cooling were extracted from the map. Superheating as high as 250 °C above the A3 temperature was observed for the α → γ phase transformation to reach completion at locations near the fusion zone (FZ) boundary. The SRXRD experiments revealed that the newly created γ phase exists with two distinct lattice parameters, resulting from the inhomogeneous distribution of carbon and manganese in the starting pearlitic/ferritic microstructure. During cooling, the reverse γ → α phase transformation was shown to depend on the HAZ location. In the fine-grained region of the HAZ, the γ → α transformation begins near the A3 temperature and ends near the A1 temperature. In this region, where the cooling rates are below 40 °C/s, the transformation occurs by nucleation and growth of pearlite. In the coarse-grained region of the HAZ, the γ → α transformation requires 200 °C of undercooling for completion. This high degree of undercooling is caused by the large grains coupled with cooling rates in excess of 50 °C/s that result in a bainitic transformation mechanism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2171-2182
Number of pages12
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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