In situ Raman study on single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes as a function of lithium insertion

Yoong Ahm Kim, Masahito Kojima, Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Souichiro Umemoto, Takaaki Watanabe, Kazuto Yoshida, Keigo Sato, Takuya Ikeda, Takuya Hayashi, Morinobu Endo, Mauricio Terrones, Mildred S. Dresselhaus

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71 Scopus citations


We investigated the electrochemical lithium ion (Li+) insertion/desertion behavior on highly pure and bundled single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and DWNTs) using an in situ Roman technique. In general, two storage sites could host Li+ in SWNT and DWNT bundles when varying an external potential: a) the outer surface sites, and b) the interstitial spaces within the bundles. The most sensitive changes in the tangential mode (TM) of the Raman spectra upon doping with Li+ can be divided into two regions. The first region was found from 2.8 to 1.0 V (the coverage of Li+ on the outer surface of a bundled nanotube) and was characterized by the loss of resonant conditions via partial charge transfer, where the G+ line of the SWNT and the TM of the outer tube of DWNTs experienced a highly depressed intensity, but remained almost constant in frequency. The appearance of a Breit-Wigner-Fano (BWF) profile provided strong evidence of metallic inner tubes within DWNTs. The second region was observed when the applied potentials ranged from 0.9 to 0 V and was characterized by Li+ diffusion into the interstitial sites of the bundled nanotube material. This phenomenon invoked a large downshift of the G- band in SWNTs, and a small downshift of the TM of the inner tube of DWNTs caused by expansion of the C-C bonds due to the charge transferred to the nanotubes, and the disappearance of the BWF profile through the screening effect of the interstitial Li+ layers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)667-676
Number of pages10
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science


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