In-Vitro and In-Vivo trans-scalp evaluation of an intracranial pressure implant at 2.4 GHz

Usmah Kawoos, Mohammad Reza Tofighi, Ruchi Warty, Francis A. Kralick, Arye Rosen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


Elevation of intracranial pressure is one of the most important issues in neurosurgery and neurology in clinical practice. The prevalent techniques for measuring intracranial pressure require equipments that are wired, restricted to a hospital environment, and cause patient discomfort. A novel method for measuring the intracranial pressure is described. A wireless completely implantable device, operating at an industrial-scientific-medical band of 2.4 GHz, has been developed and tested. In-vitro and in-vivo evaluations are described to demonstrate the feasibility of microwave pressure monitoring through scalp, device integrity over a long period of time, and repeatability of pressure measurements. A distinction between an epidural and sub-dural pressure monitoring techniques is also described. Histo-pathological results obtained upon a long-term device implantation favor the utilization of the sub-dural pressure monitoring method. On the other hand, in-vivo studies illustrate a maximum pressure reading error of 0.8 mm · Hg obtained for a sub-dural device with a capacitive microelectromechanical system sensor compared to 2 mm · Hg obtained for an epidural device with a piezoresistive sensor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4631475
Pages (from-to)2356-2365
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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