Incidence, early case fatality and determinants of stroke in Iran: Golestan Cohort Study

Nazgol Motamed-Gorji, Sanam Hariri, Sahar Masoudi, Maryam Sharafkhah, Mahdi Nalini, Shahram Oveisgharan, Masoud Khoshnia, Nogol Motamed-Gorji, Abdolsamad Gharavi, Arash Etemadi, Hossein Poustchi, Ramin Zand, Reza Malekzadeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objectives: While few studies investigated the incidence of stroke in Iran, no Iranian cohort has estimated the standardized-incidence rate and early fatality of first-ever-stroke subtypes along with associated factors. Methods: Golestan Cohort Study is a prospective study launched in northeastern Iran in 2004, including 50,045 individuals aged 40-75 at baseline. Age-standardized incidence rate of first-ever-stroke was calculated per 100,000 person-years, according to World Standard Population. The 28-day case fatality was calculated by dividing the number of fatal first-ever-stroke during the first 28 days by total events. Cox proportional hazard models were conducted to assess incidence and fatality risk factors. We used Population Attributable Fractions to estimate the incidence and early fatality proportions reduced by ideal risk factor control. Results: 1,135 first-ever-strokes were observed during 8.6 (median) years follow-up. First-ever-stroke standardized incidence rate was estimated 185.2 (95% CI: 173.2-197.2) per 100,000 person-years. The 28-day case fatality was 44.1% (95% CI: 40.4-48.2). Hypertension and pre-stroke physical activity were the strongest risk factors associated with first-ever-stroke incidence (Hazard ratio: 2.83; 2.47-3.23) and 28-day case fatality (Hazard ratio: 0.59; 0.44-0.78), respectively. Remarkably, opium consumption was strongly associated with hemorrhagic stroke incidence (Hazard ratio: 1.52; 1.04-2.23) and ischemic stroke fatality (Hazard ratio: 1.44; 1.01-2.09). Overall, modifiable risk factors contributed to 83% and 61% of first-ever-stroke incidence and early fatality, respectively. Conclusion: Efficient risk factor control can considerably reduce stroke occurrence and fatality in our study. Establishing awareness campaigns and 24-hour stroke units seem necessary for improving the stroke management in this area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106658
JournalJournal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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