Increasing provision of adolescent vaccines in primary care: A randomized controlled trial

Melissa B. Gilkey, Amanda M. Dayton, Jennifer L. Moss, Alicia C. Sparks, Amy H. Grimshaw, James M. Bowling, Noel T. Brewer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of in-person and webinar-delivered AFIX (Assessment, Feedback, Incentives, and eXchange) consultations for increasing adolescent vaccine coverage. METHODS: We randomly assigned 91 primary care clinics in North Carolina, serving 107 443 adolescents, to receive no consultation or an in-person or webinar AFIX consultation. We delivered in-person consultations in April through May 2011 and webinar consultations in May through August 2011. The state's immunization registry provided vaccine coverage data for younger patients (ages 11-12 years) and older patients (ages 13-18 years) for 3 adolescent vaccines: tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap); meningococcal; and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines (≥1 dose, females only). RESULTS: At the 5-month follow-up, AFIX consultations increased vaccine coverage among younger adolescents. Patients in the in-person arm experienced coverage changes that exceeded those in the control arm for Tdap (3.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2 to 4.6]), meningococcal (4.7% [95% CI: 2.3 to 7.2], and HPV (1.5% [95% CI: 0.3 to 2.7]) vaccines. Patients in the webinar versus control arm also experienced larger changes for these vaccines. AFIX did little to improve coverage among older adolescents. At 1 year, the 3 arms showed similar coverage changes. The effectiveness of in-person and webinar consultations was not statistically different at either time point (all, P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Webinar AFIX consultations were as effective as in-person consultations in achieving short-term increases in vaccine coverage for younger adolescents. AFIX consultations for adolescents need improvement to have a stronger and more durable impact, especially for HPV vaccine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e346-e353
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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