Increasing the adoption of evidence-based communication practices for HPV vaccination in primary care clinics: The HPV ECHO study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

William A. Calo, Parth D. Shah, Benjamin N. Fogel, Mack T. Ruffin IV, Jennifer L. Moss, Bernice L. Hausman, Joel E. Segel, Erica Francis, Eric Schaefer, Chelsea M. Bufalini, Nikole Johnston, Ellie Hogentogler, Jennifer L. Kraschnewski

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Background: The safe, highly-effective human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine remains underused in the US. The Announcement Approach Training (AAT) has been shown to effectively increase HPV vaccine uptake by training providers to make strong vaccine recommendations and answer parents' common questions. Systems communications, like recall notices, can further improve HPV vaccination by reducing missed clinical opportunities for vaccination. Never tested in supporting HPV vaccination, the ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) model is a proven implementation strategy to increase best practices among healthcare providers. This trial uses a hybrid effectiveness-implementation design (type II) to evaluate two ECHO-delivered interventions intended to increase HPV vaccination rates. Methods: This 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial will be conducted in 36 primary care clinics in Pennsylvania. Aim 1 evaluates the impact of HPV ECHO (AAT to providers) and HPV ECHO+ (AAT to providers plus recall notices to vaccine-declining parents) versus control on HPV vaccination (≥1 dose) among adolescents, ages 11–14, between baseline and 12-month follow-up (primary outcome). Using a convergent mixed-methods approach, Aim 2 evaluates the implementation of the HPV ECHO and HPV ECHO+ interventions. Aim 3 explores exposure to and impact of vaccine information from providers and other sources (e.g., social media) on secondary acceptance among 200 HPV vaccine-declining parents within 12 months. Discussion: We expect to demonstrate the effectiveness and evaluate the implementation of two highly scalable interventions to increase HPV vaccination in primary care clinics. Our study seeks to address the communication needs of both providers and parents, increase HPV vaccination, and, eventually, prevent HPV-related cancers. Trial registration: NCT04587167. Registered on October 14, 2020.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number107266
JournalContemporary Clinical Trials
StatePublished - Aug 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology (medical)

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