Incremental validity of the contrast avoidance model: A comparison with intolerance of uncertainty and negative problem orientation

Sandra J. Llera, Michelle G. Newman

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Background: This study examined the incremental validity of the Contrast Avoidance Model (CAM) in predicting generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms when compared against well-established constructs in the GAD literature: intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and negative problem orientation (NPO). Method: In this study, 185 students (108 of whom endorsed clinical levels of GAD symptoms) completed questionnaires to assess for all constructs. GAD symptoms were regressed on measures of contrast avoidance (CA; Contrast Avoidance-General Emotion and Contrast Avoidance-Worry Questionnaires; Llera & Newman, 2017) tendencies in addition to measures of IU and NPO in separate analyses. Commonality analyses explored the unique versus overlapping contributions of each factor in explaining GAD symptoms. Results: In all models, CA was a significant predictor after controlling for demographic variables (age, gender, race, and ethnicity) and both IU and NPO. This was also true when excluding CA items referencing worry. All variables contributed unique explanatory power in the prediction of GAD. Conclusion: Results provide evidence of the incremental validity of the CAM as a model of GAD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102699
JournalJournal of Anxiety Disorders
StatePublished - Apr 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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