Individualized care for patients with intersex (differences of sex development): Diagnosis and treatment of aphallia

Kanthi Bangalore Krishna, Celine Cinnatti, Piet Hoebeke, Anne Francoise Spinoit, Roberto De Castro, Peter A. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This review discusses issues and concerns in the management of aphallia, updating status of a post-pubertal individual who required further surgery after having initial surgery for aphallia as an infant. Through this case, which discusses an 18-year-old young adult who had penile agenesis, who desired further phalloplasty involving glanuloplasty and implantation of an erectile device, we highlight the importance of periodic evaluation and close follow up. Surgery during infancy or early childhood to create a penis is important for gender development in a boy, especially if there were functional testes during fetal life, even if this surgery would only be the first stage. There is a strong probability of subsequent surgery after initial phalloplasty before puberty, even with the use of currently refined techniques. Here we discuss the changing techniques that document the ongoing, continued refinement of these procedures, highlighting that further outcome data are needed to identify ways to further optimize current techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39-44
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Pediatric Urology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Urology

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