Influence of Temperature on the Forming Limits of High-Strength Low Alloy, and Dual-Phase Steels

Nikolas Woellner, Manolo L. Gipiela, Sergio Fernando Lajarin, Claudimir J. Rebeyka, Chetan P. Nikhare, Paulo V.P. Marcondes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


High-strength steels (HSS) appear as a good alternative to common steels to reduce vehicle weight, thus reducing fuel consumption. Despite the excellent mechanical behavior towards its lower weight, its application in industry is still limited, as manufacturing such materials suffers from limitations, especially regarding formability. The literature shows springback to be the most common problem. Among the parameters that can be studied to minimize this problem, the temperature appears, according to the literature, to be one of the most influential parameters in minimizing springback. However, the consequence of the temperature increase on the forming limits of materials is not completely understood. This study proposes to determine the consequences of the use of the temperature rise technique in the forming limits of high-strength steels. Two different steels were studied (HSLA 350/440 and DP 350/600). To evaluate the formability, the Nakazima method was used (practical). Finite element models were made which describe the material as well as Nakazima experimental behavior. To predict the forming limit strains via the numerical method, the thickness gradient criterion was applied. The practical and computational results were compared to validate the finite element model. Four different temperature ranges were analyzed. In general, it was found that 400 °C has a negative impact on the forming limits of both steels. This negative effect was found to be due to the alloying elements, such as silicon and manganese, present in the alloy. These alloying elements take part in the increase and decrease in resistance coefficient at the elevated temperature. For HSLA 350/440 steel, the forming limit strain decreased with an increase in temperature up to 600 °C and then increased at 800 °C; whereas for DP 350/600 steel, the forming limit strain decreased till 400 °C and then increased for 600 °C and 800 °C. Another factor which might have contributed to the behavior of the DP steel is the interaction of hard martensite with soft ferrite phase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number211
JournalJournal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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