Wild birds in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural and asymptomatic reservoirs of influenza A viruses representing all of the avian hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes. Transmission of avian influenza (AI) viruses from wild birds to gallinaceous poultry species occurs regularly and outcomes vary, ranging from asymptomatic infections to mortality. Circulation of H5 and H7 low pathogenic AI (LPAI) viruses in gallinaceous poultry may result in mutations in the HA protein cleavage site and the emergence of highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) viruses, which in poultry can cause severe disease with high economic losses. Since 2002, various wild bird species also have succumbed to infection with the Eurasian H5N1 HPAI viruses. The pathogenesis of AI is complex and the ability of these viruses to produce disease and death in avian species is dependent on various host, viral and environmental factors, which are not completely understood.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Microbiology (medical)