Information privacy and correlates: An empirical attempt to bridge and distinguish privacyrelated concepts

Tamara Dinev, Heng Xu, Jeff H. Smith, Paul Hart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

313 Scopus citations


Privacy is one of the few concepts that has been studied across many disciplines, but is still difficult to grasp. The current understanding of privacy is largely fragmented and discipline-dependent. This study develops and tests a framework of information privacy and its correlates, the latter often being confused with or built into definitions of information privacy per se. Our framework development was based on the privacy theories of Westin and Altman, the economic view of the privacy calculus, and the identity management framework of Zwick and Dholakia. The dependent variable of the model is perceived information privacy. The particularly relevant correlates to information privacy are anonymity, secrecy, confidentiality, and control. We posit that the first three are tactics for information control; perceived information control and perceived risk are salient determinants of perceived information privacy; and perceived risk is a function of perceived benefits of information disclosure, information sensitivity, importance of information transparency, and regulatory expectations. The research model was empirically tested and validated in the Web 2.0 context, using a survey of Web 2.0 users. Our study enhances the theoretical understanding of information privacy and is useful for privacy advocates, and legal, management information systems, marketing, and social science scholars.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)295-316
Number of pages22
JournalEuropean Journal of Information Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Information Systems and Management
  • Information Systems
  • Library and Information Sciences
  • Management Information Systems


Dive into the research topics of 'Information privacy and correlates: An empirical attempt to bridge and distinguish privacyrelated concepts'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this