Information processing: Horizontal cells

A. A. Hirano, S. Barnes, S. L. Stella, N. C. Brecha

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Horizontal cells are second-order neurons in the outer retina that make reciprocal synapses with rod and cone photoreceptors, and form a laterally extending syncytium through light-modulated gap junctions with their neighbors. There are two physiological classes of horizontal cells, encoding luminosity and chromaticity. They play key roles in generating the inhibitory spatial and color-opponent receptive-field surround properties of photoreceptors and bipolar cells, as well as modulating the synaptic gain of photoreceptor synapses, to contribute to visual processing that highlights changes in contrast, luminance, and color to improve visual acuity in the vertebrate retina.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of the Eye, Four-Volume Set
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9780123742032
ISBN (Print)9780123741981
StatePublished - Jan 1 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Medicine


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