Insomnia with objective short sleep duration has been proposed as the most biologically severe phenotype of the disorder associated with cardiometabolic morbidity in population-based samples. In this study, we investigated the association between insomnia with objective short sleep duration and hypertension in a large clinical sample. We studied 348 patients diagnosed with chronic insomnia disorder based on International Classification of Sleep Disorders Third Edition criteria and 150 normal sleepers. Objective short sleep duration was defined by the median total sleep time of the sample (< 7 hr) measured with 1-night polysomnography. Hypertension was defined based on blood pressure levels, antihypertensive medication use and/or a physician diagnosis. After adjusting for potential confounders, patients with chronic insomnia disorder who slept < 7 hr were associated with 2.8-fold increased odds of hypertension compared with normal sleepers who slept ≥ 7 hr (odds ratio = 2.81, 95% confidence interval = 1.068–7.411) or < 7 hr (odds ratio = 2.75, 95% confidence interval = 1.005–7.542), whereas patients with chronic insomnia disorder who slept ≥ 7 hr (odds ratio = 1.52, 95% confidence interval = 0.537–4.285) or normal sleepers who slept < 7 hr (odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval = 0.294–3.904) were not significantly associated with increased odds of hypertension compared with normal sleepers who slept ≥ 7 hr. Linear regression analyses showed that, for every hour decrease in total sleep time, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 1.014 mmHg (p = 0.045) and 0.923 mmHg (p = 0.015), respectively, in patients with chronic insomnia disorder but not in normal sleepers. Our findings further support that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is a risk factor for hypertension, and objective short sleep duration may be a useful marker of the biological severity of chronic insomnia disorder in clinical practice.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cognitive Neuroscience
- Behavioral Neuroscience