Instruction Scheduling for Low Power

Amisha Parikh, Soontae Kim, Mahmut Kandemir, Narayanan Vijaykrishnan, Mary Jane Irwin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Reducing energy consumption has become an important issue in designing hardware and software systems in recent years. Although low power hardware components are critical for reducing energy consumption, the switching activity, which is the main source of dynamic power dissipation in electronic systems, is largely determined by the software running on these systems. In this paper, we present and evaluate several instruction scheduling algorithms that reorder a given sequence of instructions taking into account the energy considerations. We first compare a performance-oriented-scheduling technique with three energy-oriented instruction scheduling algorithms from both performance (execution cycles of the resulting schedules) and energy consumption points of view. Then, we propose three scheduling algorithms that consider energy and performance at the same time. Our experimentation with these scheduling techniques shows that the best scheduling from the performance perspective is not necessarily the best scheduling from the energy perspective. Further, scheduling techniques that consider both energy and performance simultaneously are found to be desirable, that is, these techniques are quite successful in reducing energy consumption and their performance (in terms of execution cycles) is comparable to that of a pure performance-oriented scheduling. We also illuminate the inherent approximations and difficulties in building energy models for enabling energy-aware instruction scheduling and explore alternative options using cycle-accurate energy simulator. The simulation results show that the energy-oriented scheduling reduces energy consumption by up to 30% compared to the performance-oriented scheduling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)129-149
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of VLSI Signal Processing Systems for Signal, Image, and Video Technology
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Information Systems
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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