Integrating 1G with 2G Bioethanol Production by Using Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) as the Feedstock for Lignocellulolytic Enzyme Production

Attia Iram, Deniz Cekmecelioglu, Ali Demirci

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


First-generation (1G) bioethanol is one of the most used liquid biofuels in the transport industry. It is generated by using sugar- or starch-based feedstocks, while second-generation (2G) bioethanol is generated by using lignocellulosic feedstocks. Distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a byproduct of first-generation bioethanol production with a current annual production of 22.6 million tons in the USA. DDGS is rich in fiber and valuable nutrients contents, which can be used to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes such as cellulases and hemicellulases for 2G bioethanol production. However, DDGS needs a pretreatment method such as dilute acid, ammonia soaking, or steam hydrolysis to release monosaccharides and short-length oligosaccharides as fermentable sugars for use in microbial media. These fermentable sugars can then induce microbial growth and enzyme production compared to only glucose or xylose in the media. In addition, selection of one or more suitable microbial strains, which work best with the DDGS for enzyme production, is also needed. Media optimization and fermentation process optimization strategies can then be applied to find the optimum conditions for the production of cellulases and hemicellulases needed for 2G bioethanol production. Therefore, in this review, a summary of all such techniques is compiled with a special focus on recent findings obtained in previous pieces of research conducted by the authors and by others in the literature. Furthermore, a comparison of such techniques applied to other feedstocks and process improvement strategies is also provided. Overall, dilute acid pretreatment is proven to be better than other pretreatment methods, and fermentation optimization strategies can enhance enzyme production by considerable folds with a suitable feedstock such as DDGS. Future studies can be further enhanced by the technoeconomic viability of DDGS as the on-site enzyme feedstock for the manufacture of second-generation bioethanol (2G) in first-generation (1G) ethanol plants, thus bridging the two processes for the efficient production of bioethanol using corn or other starch-based lignocellulosic plants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number705
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Plant Science


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