Interleukin-1 mediates hemodynamic dysfunction and release of eicosanoids and tumor necrosis factor during graded bacteremia

Mary C. Santos, Daniel S. Woolley, James V. Quinn, Gus J. Slotman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The pathophysiologic events of sepsis mediated by interleukin-1 (IL-1) remain ill-defined. The purpose of this study was to identify the circulatory derangements of which IL-1 was a necessary mediator and evaluate its interactions with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the eicosanoids during graded bacteremia. Eleven adult female swine were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and monitored with pulmonary artery catheters and arterial lines; they received intravenously either saline vehicle (septic control, n = 6) or human recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, n = 5). The animals were then infused with Aeromonas hydrophila (109/mL) for 4 h at rates gradually increased from .2 mL/kg/h to 4 mL/kg/h over 3 h, then sacrificed after 4 h. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI), and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) were recorded at baseline and hourly thereafter, and plasma 6-keto-PGF1α (6-KETO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and leukotrienes B4(LTB4) and C4D4E4 (LTCDE), pg/mL, were measured by ELISA. MAP, LVSWI, arterial Po2 all decreased in the septic control group to levels significantly below those of the IL-1 antagonist animals. Circulating 6-KETO, LTCDE, and TNF increased significantly in all septic animals. Plasma LTB, and TNF were reduced by IL-1 blockade, compared with septic controls. TxB2 was not affected by IL-1 inhibition. There were no intergroup differences in platelet aggregation, but the in vitro aggregation response decreased from baseline in septic controls to 54 ± 27% (p < .05). IL-1 is necessary to the development of systemic hypotension impaired LVSWI, and increased intravascular platelet aggregation during graded bacteremia. Conversely, IL-1 helps to maintain stroke volume and low SVRI in graded bacteremia, possibly through increased prostacyclin release. It may contribute to impaired pulmonary gas exchange and increased tissue oxygen demands. TNF release is stimulated in the presence of unopposed IL-1 and may be synergistic with it in the adverse hemodynamic effects of endogenous IL-1. IL-1 is required for increased leukotriene and prostacyclin levels in this model, but it is not involved in thromboxane release. Whether the lack of survival benefit from IL-1ra in human sepsis is due to these mixed cardiopulmonary and mediator effects, to species differences, or to timing of IL-1ra administration is not clear from the data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)423-428
Number of pages6
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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