Interleukin-13 and transforming growth factor-β1 inhibit spontaneous sleep in rabbits

Takeshi Kubota, Jidong Fang, Tetsuya Kushikata, James M. Krueger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α are involved in physiological sleep regulation. Interleukin (IL)-13 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 are anti-inflammatory cytokines that inhibit proinflammatory cytokines by several mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that IL-13 and TGF-β1 could attenuate sleep in rabbits. Three doses of IL-13 (8, 40, and 200 ng) and TGF-β1 (40, 100, and 200 ng) were injected intracerebroventricularly 3 h after the beginning of the light period. In addition, one dose of IL-13 (200 ng) and one dose of TGF-β1 (200 ng) were injected at dark onset. The two higher doses of IL-13 and the highest dose of TGF-β1 significantly inhibited spontanenous non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) when they were given in the light period. IL-13 also inhibited NREMS after dark onset administration; however, the inhibitory effect was less potent than that observed after light period administration. The 40-ng dose of IL-13 inhibited REMS duration during the dark period. TGF-β1 administered at dark onset had no effect on sleep. These data provide additional evidence for the hypothesis that a brain cytokine network is involved in regulation of physiological sleep.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)R786-R792
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Issue number3 48-3
StatePublished - 2000

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Interleukin-13 and transforming growth factor-β1 inhibit spontaneous sleep in rabbits'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this