Intermediate-term oncological and functional outcomes of salvage cryotherapy for the management of prostate cancer recurrence after primary brachytherapy versus primary cryotherapy: A propensity score-matched analysis

Sriram Deivasigamani, Hazem Orabi, Ahmed El-Shafei, Eric S. Adams, Srinath Kotamarti, Ali Aminsharifi, Leah Davis, Yuan Wu, J. Stephen Jones, Thomas J. Polascik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Salvage cryotherapy (SCT) is widely used to treat prostate cancer (PCa) recurrence after radiotherapy (RT). We studied the intermediate oncological and functional outcomes of patients who underwent SCT following cryotherapy (CRYO-SCT) recurrence and compare it to recurrence after brachytherapy (BT-SCT). Methods: An IRB-approved retrospective cohort study utilizing patient data from the Cryo On-Line Data Registry and the Duke PCa database between 1992 and 2016. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) using Phoenix criteria was the primary endpoint assessed at 2- and 5-years post-SCT. Secondary endpoints assessed functional outcomes including urinary continence, erectile function, and recto-urethral fistula. Association between treatment and biochemical progression-free survival was assessed using inverse probability weighted (IPTW) Cox proportional hazards regression. The differences in the secondary functional outcomes were assessed by Pearson's χ2 test or Fisher's exact test, corrected for IPTW. Results: A total of 194 patients met inclusion criteria. The BCR rate for BT-SCT and CRYO-SCT was 23 (20.4%) and 17 (21%) at 2 years and 30 (26.5%) and 22 (27.2%) at 5 years according to Phoenix criteria. There was no statistical difference in 2 years (hazard ratio [HR] 0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5–1.7, p = 0.7) or 5-year BCR (HR: 0.86; 95% CI, 0.5-1.5, p = 0.6) between the groups. The functional outcomes like urinary continence (p = 0.4), erectile function (p = 0.1), and recto-urethral fistula (p = 0.3) were not statistically different. Conclusion: CRYO-SCT appears to be well tolerated, with comparable oncological and functional outcomes to patients failing primary BT. The findings also demonstrated that SCT can render a significant number of patients biochemically free of disease after initial CRYO with minimal morbidity. SCT is a viable treatment option to salvage local PCa recurrence following either BT or cryoablation failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1373-1386
Number of pages14
Issue number14
StatePublished - Oct 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Urology

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