International consensus conference recommendations on ultrasound education for undergraduate medical students

Richard A. Hoppmann, Jeanette Mladenovic, Lawrence Melniker, Radu Badea, Michael Blaivas, Miguel Montorfano, Alfred Abuhamad, Vicki Noble, Arif Hussain, Gregor Prosen, Tomás Villen, Gabriele Via, Ramon Nogue, Craig Goodmurphy, Marcus Bastos, G. Stephen Nace, Giovanni Volpicelli, Richard J. Wakefield, Steve Wilson, Anjali BhagraJongyeol Kim, David Bahner, Chris Fox, Ruth Riley, Peter Steinmetz, Bret P. Nelson, John Pellerito, Levon N. Nazarian, L. Britt Wilson, Irene W.Y. Ma, David Amponsah, Keith R. Barron, Renee K. Dversdal, Mike Wagner, Anthony J. Dean, David Tierney, James W. Tsung, Paula Nocera, José Pazeli, Rachel Liu, Susanna Price, Luca Neri, Barbara Piccirillo, Adi Osman, Vaughan Lee, Nitha Naqvi, Tomislav Petrovic, Paul Bornemann, Maxime Valois, Jean Francoise Lanctot, Robert Haddad, Deepak Govil, Laura A. Hurtado, Vi Am Dinh, Robert M. DePhilip, Beatrice Hoffmann, Resa E. Lewiss, Nayana A. Parange, Akira Nishisaki, Stephanie J. Doniger, Paul Dallas, Kevin Bergman, J. Oscar Barahona, Ximena Wortsman, R. Stephen Smith, Craig A. Sisson, James Palma, Mike Mallin, Liju Ahmed, Hassan Mustafa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Objectives: The purpose of this study is to provide expert consensus recommendations to establish a global ultrasound curriculum for undergraduate medical students. Methods: 64 multi-disciplinary ultrasound experts from 16 countries, 50 multi-disciplinary ultrasound consultants, and 21 medical students and residents contributed to these recommendations. A modified Delphi consensus method was used that included a systematic literature search, evaluation of the quality of literature by the GRADE system, and the RAND appropriateness method for panel judgment and consensus decisions. The process included four in-person international discussion sessions and two rounds of online voting. Results: A total of 332 consensus conference statements in four curricular domains were considered: (1) curricular scope (4 statements), (2) curricular rationale (10 statements), (3) curricular characteristics (14 statements), and (4) curricular content (304 statements). Of these 332 statements, 145 were recommended, 126 were strongly recommended, and 61 were not recommended. Important aspects of an undergraduate ultrasound curriculum identified include curricular integration across the basic and clinical sciences and a competency and entrustable professional activity-based model. The curriculum should form the foundation of a life-long continuum of ultrasound education that prepares students for advanced training and patient care. In addition, the curriculum should complement and support the medical school curriculum as a whole with enhanced understanding of anatomy, physiology, pathophysiological processes and clinical practice without displacing other important undergraduate learning. The content of the curriculum should be appropriate for the medical student level of training, evidence and expert opinion based, and include ongoing collaborative research and development to ensure optimum educational value and patient care. Conclusions: The international consensus conference has provided the first comprehensive document of recommendations for a basic ultrasound curriculum. The document reflects the opinion of a diverse and representative group of international expert ultrasound practitioners, educators, and learners. These recommendations can standardize undergraduate medical student ultrasound education while serving as a basis for additional research in medical education and the application of ultrasound in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number31
JournalUltrasound Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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