Interpassivity instead of interactivity? The uses and gratifications of automated features

Cheng Chen, Sangwook Lee, S. Shyam Sundar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The popularity of automated features, such as autocorrect, reflects an interesting paradox in digital media use: while users appreciate the interactivity afforded by these media, they also seem to enjoy passively observing the system perform the interaction on their behalf. We aim to understand this paradox by using the concept of interpassivity and exploring the primary gratifications users seek in automated features. Following the research methods in U&G research, we first conducted three focus groups to generate a list of 66 gratification items, which were subjected to exploratory factor analysis in a survey study (N = 498). Results show that convenience, user control, and user profiling are three distinct gratifications of automated feature usage. Furthermore, user control is universally desired across features, and user profiling motivates the use of all automated features. We discuss the implications of these findings for U&G research and interface design of automated features.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)717-735
Number of pages19
JournalBehaviour and Information Technology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • General Social Sciences
  • Human-Computer Interaction

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