Interstitial norepinephrine concentrations in skeletal muscle of ischemic heart failure

Jihong Xing, Satoshi Koba, Valerie Kehoe, Zhaohui Gao, Kristen Rice, Nicholas King, Lawrence Sinoway, Jianhua Li

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12 Scopus citations


During exercise, sympathetic nerve responses are accentuated in heart failure (HF), and this enhances norepinephrine (NE) release and evokes vasoconstriction. Two key pathophysiological responses could contribute to the greater NE release: 1) increased sympathetic nerve discharge and 2) increased NE in the neurovascular junction for a given level of sympathetic discharge. In this report, we focus on the second of these two general issues and test the following hypotheses: 1) in HF for a given level of sympathetic nerve stimulation, NE concentration in the interstitium (an index of neurovascular NE) would be greater, and 2) the greater interstitial NE concentration would be linked to reduced NE uptake. Studies were performed in rats 8-10 wk after induction of myocardial infarction (MI). Interstitial NE samples were collected from microdialysis probes inserted into the hindlimb muscle. Dialysate concentration of NE was determined by the HPLC method. First, interstitial NE concentration increased during electrical stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic nerves in eight control rats. An increase in interstitial NE concentration was significantly greater in 10 rats with severe MI. Additionally, an NE uptake-1 inhibitor (desipramine, 1 μM) was injected into the arterial blood supply of the muscle in six control and eight MI rats. Desipramine increased interstitial NE concentration by 24% in control and by only 3% (P < 0.05 vs. control) in MI rats. In conclusion, given levels of electrical stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic nerve lead to higher interstitial NE concentration in HF. This effect is due, in part, to reduced NE uptake-1 in HF.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H1190-H1195
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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