Investigation of growth mechanism for highly oriented TiO2 nanorods: the role of reaction time and annealing temperature

Bharat R. Bade, Sachin Rondiya, Somnath R. Bhopale, Nelson Y. Dzade, Mahesh M. Kamble, Avinash Rokade, Mamta P. Nasane, Mahendra A. More, Sandesh R. Jadkar, Adinath M. Funde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a versatile and inexpensive material for extended applicability in several scientific and technological fields including photo-catalysis for industrial waste treatment, energy harvesting, and hydrogen production. In this work, we report the synthesis of TiO2 thin film using hydrothermal method and investigations on the influence of reaction time and annealing temperature on growth mechanism of the TiO2 nanorods. The synthesized TiO2 films were studied by using UV–visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The XRD and Raman measurements revealed the formation of defect free and pure tetragonal TiO2 rutile phase. The TiO2 thin films show absorption band edge at around 420 nm in the UV–visible spectrum and exhibit direct band gap value of 2.9 eV. The TiO2 nanorods are demonstrated to grow randomly on the FTO substrate with changing reaction times but grow uniformly in a flower-like pattern with increasing annealing temperature. Investigation of the field emission properties of TiO2 thin films (tested as field-emitter array) estimates the turn-on and threshold field at 4.06 and 7.06 V/µm at 10 and 100 µA/cm2, respectively. Graphic Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1073
JournalSN Applied Sciences
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Engineering
  • General Environmental Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


Dive into the research topics of 'Investigation of growth mechanism for highly oriented TiO2 nanorods: the role of reaction time and annealing temperature'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this