Investigation of the thermal-hydraulic non-equilibrium in a 7 × 7 rod bundle during reflood

Yue Jin, Fan Bill Cheung, Stephen M. Bajorek, Kirk Tien, Chris L. Hoxie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


The current research aims at investigating the thermal–hydraulic non-equilibrium encountered in the dispersed flow film boiling (DFFB) regime under reflood conditions. A series of constant reflood tests have been performed at the 7 × 7 Rod Bundle Heat Transfer (RBHT) test facility and the experimental results have been analyzed in detail. The data not only is useful for the development of theoretical models for two-phase interfacial mass and heat transfer, void fraction, pressure drop, and rod bundle cooling prediction, but also can be used as a benchmark data base for evaluating the performance of various thermal–hydraulic analysis codes. In this paper, a complete data reduction methodology is employed to reveal and interpret important two-phase flow phenomena during reflood transients. The results show that for the region far away from the quench front location, significant thermal non-equilibrium may exist during reflood and thus poor heat removal capability of the flow mixture is expected. On the other hand, for the region immediately downstream of the quench front, the two-phase flow is found to be close to the thermal equilibrium state, indicating that both the interfacial heat transfer and the heat transfer between the rod surface and fluid mixture are very efficient. In addition, based on the liquid droplet measurement and force balance calculations, it is found that the slip ratio between the two separate phases is a strong function of the droplet size and reflood time. With a larger droplet size and a shorter distance from the quench location, the slip ratio is larger. The liquid carryover fraction at the exit of the test section is also determined as a function of the reflood time. Results indicate that only a small portion of the injected coolant mass is stored within the bundle. A significant amount of liquid mass into the test section is either evaporated or entrained in the vapor flow and eventually left the bundle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)266-279
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
StatePublished - Dec 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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