Iron, folate, and kilocalorie intakes change significantly in young children between 12 and 18 months

L. E. Murray, M. F. Picciano, H. Smiciklas-Wright, L. L. Birch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A growth and infant nutrition study (GAINS) is monitoring energy and nutrient intakes of young children at ages 12 to 18 mos. Intake data are collected via 3-day dietary records at monthly intervals and analyzed by the Minnesota Nutrient Data System. Nutrient intakes are reported for 23 subjects. Mean kcal intakes increased (p<0.04) from mos 12 (939.3±42.4) to 18 (1071.6171.7) while %kcals from carbohydrates, fat, and protein remained relatively constant. Mean daily folate intakes increased (p<0.04) from 124.9±8.8 (ig at 12 mos to 162.7±19.0 (ig at 18 mos reflecting increased use of fruit juices, fruit, and fortified cereals. Folate intakes are above recommended levels at both mos 12 (246%) and 18 (325%). Similarly, intakes of vitamins C and 812 were greater than recommended and increased from mos 12 to 18. Vitamins BS and A intakes were at, or slightly above, recommended levels and remained relatively constant from mos 12 to 18. In contrast, vitamin D and E intakes were at 60% of recommended levels and did not vary with time. Mean iron intake decreased (p<0.05) from 97% (9.7±1.2 mg) to 74% (7.4±0.8 mg) of recommended levels from mos 12 to 18 respectively due to a reduced intake of infant formula and fortified cereals (infant and adult types). Calcium intakes were 100% and zinc intakes were 50% of recommended levels throughout the study. These data show that total kcals increase as infants make the transition to adult style diets but most micronutrient intakes remain constant or decrease indicating consumption of less nutrient dense foods. (Supported by National Dairy Council).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)A480
JournalFASEB Journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1996

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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