The folding of proteins into their native conformation is a complex process that has been extensively studied over the past half-century. The ribosome, the molecular machine responsible for protein synthesis, is known to interact with nascent proteins, adding further complexity to the protein folding landscape. Consequently, it is unclear whether the folding pathways of proteins are conserved on and off the ribosome. The main question remains: to what extent does the ribosome help proteins fold? To address this question, we used coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to compare the mechanisms by which the proteins dihydrofolate reductase, type III chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, and D-alanine−D-alanine ligase B fold during and after vectorial synthesis on the ribosome to folding from the full-length unfolded state in bulk solution. Our results reveal that the influence of the ribosome on protein folding mechanisms varies depending on the size and complexity of the protein. Specifically, for a small protein with a simple fold, the ribosome facilitates efficient folding by helping the nascent protein avoid misfolded conformations. However, for larger and more complex proteins, the ribosome does not promote folding and may contribute to the formation of intermediate misfolded states cotranslationally. These misfolded states persist posttranslationally and do not convert to the native state during the 6 μs runtime of our coarse-grain simulations. Overall, our study highlights the complex interplay between the ribosome and protein folding and provides insight into the mechanisms of protein folding on and off the ribosome.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry