Isolated intersection control for various levels of vehicle technology: Conventional, connected, and automated vehicles

Kaidi Yang, S. Ilgin Guler, Monica Menendez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

208 Scopus citations


Connected vehicle technology can be beneficial for traffic operations at intersections. The information provided by cars equipped with this technology can be used to design a more efficient signal control strategy. Moreover, it can be possible to control the trajectory of automated vehicles with a centralized controller. This paper builds on a previous signal control algorithm developed for connected vehicles in a simple, single intersection. It improves the previous work by (1) integrating three different stages of technology development; (2) developing a heuristics to switch the signal controls depending on the stage of technology; (3) increasing the computational efficiency with a branch and bound solution method; (4) incorporating trajectory design for automated vehicles; (5) using a Kalman filter to reduce the impact of measurement errors on the final solution. Three categories of vehicles are considered in this paper to represent different stages of this technology: conventional vehicles, connected but non-automated vehicles (connected vehicles), and automated vehicles. The proposed algorithm finds the optimal departure sequence to minimize the total delay based on position information. Within each departure sequence, the algorithm finds the optimal trajectory of automated vehicles that reduces total delay. The optimal departure sequence and trajectories are obtained by a branch and bound method, which shows the potential of generalizing this algorithm to a complex intersection. Simulations are conducted for different total flows, demand ratios and penetration rates of each technology stage (i.e. proportion of each category of vehicles). This algorithm is compared to an actuated signal control algorithm to evaluate its performance. The simulation results show an evident decrease in the total number of stops and delay when using the connected vehicle algorithm for the tested scenarios with information level of as low as 50%. Robustness of this algorithm to different input parameters and measurement noises are also evaluated. Results show that the algorithm is more sensitive to the arrival pattern in high flow scenarios. Results also show that the algorithm works well with the measurement noises. Finally, the results are used to develop a heuristic to switch between the different control algorithms, according to the total demand and penetration rate of each technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)109-129
Number of pages21
JournalTransportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Transportation
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Management Science and Operations Research


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