It is not only what you say, it is also how you say it: The strategic use of campaign sentiment

Charles Crabtree, Matt Golder, Thomas Gschwend, Indriđi H. Indriđason

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


What explains the type of electoral campaign run by political parties? We provide a new perspective on campaigns that focuses on the strategic use of emotive language. We argue that the level of positive sentiment parties adopt in their campaigns depends on their incumbency status, their policy position, and objective economic conditions. We test these claims with a novel data set that captures the emotive language used in over 400 party manifestos across eight European countries. As predicted, we find that incumbent parties, particularly incumbent prime ministerial parties, use more positive sentiment than opposition parties. We find that ideologically moderate parties employ higher levels of positive sentiment than extremist parties. And we find that all parties exhibit lower levels of positive sentiment when the economy is performing poorly but that this negative effect is weaker for incumbents. Our analysis has important implications for research on campaign strategies and retrospective voting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1044-1060
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Politics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Sociology and Political Science


Dive into the research topics of 'It is not only what you say, it is also how you say it: The strategic use of campaign sentiment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this