Kepler-36: A pair of planets with neighboring orbits and dissimilar densities

Joshua A. Carter, Eric Agol, William J. Chaplin, Sarbani Basu, Timothy R. Bedding, Lars A. Buchhave, Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard, Katherine M. Deck, Yvonne Elsworth, Daniel C. Fabrycky, Eric B. Ford, Jonathan J. Fortney, Steven J. Hale, Rasmus Handberg, Saskia Hekker, Matthew J. Holman, Daniel Huber, Christopher Karoff, Steven D. Kawaler, Hans KjeldsenJack J. Lissauer, Eric D. Lopez, Mikkel N. Lund, Mia Lundkvist, Travis S. Metcalfe, Andrea Miglio, Leslie A. Rogers, Dennis Stello, William J. Borucki, Steve Bryson, Jessie L. Christiansen, William D. Cochran, John C. Geary, Ronald L. Gilliland, Michael R. Haas, Jennifer Hall, Andrew W. Howard, Jon M. Jenkins, Todd Klaus, David G. Koch, David W. Latham, Phillip J. MacQueen, Dimitar Sasselov, Jason H. Steffen, Joseph D. Twicken, Joshua N. Winn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

301 Scopus citations


In the solar system, the planets' compositions vary with orbital distance, with rocky planets in close orbits and lower-density gas giants in wider orbits. The detection of close-in giant planets around other stars was the first clue that this pattern is not universal and that planets' orbits can change substantially after their formation. Here, we report another violation of the orbitcomposition pattern: two planets orbiting the same star with orbital distances differing by only 10% and densities differing by a factor of 8. One planet is likely a rocky "super-Earth," whereas the other is more akin to Neptune. These planets are 20 times more closely spaced and have a larger density contrast than any adjacent pair of planets in the solar system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)556-559
Number of pages4
Issue number6094
StatePublished - Aug 3 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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