Kinesin-1,-2, and-3 motors use family-specific mechanochemical strategies to effectively compete with dynein during bidirectional transport

Allison M. Gicking, Tzu Chen Ma, Qingzhou Feng, Rui Jiang, Somayesadat Badieyan, Michael A. Cianfrocco, William O. Hancock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Bidirectional cargo transport in neurons requires competing activity of motors from the kinesin-1,-2, and-3 superfamilies against cytoplasmic dynein-1. Previous studies demonstrated that when kinesin-1 attached to dynein-dynactin-BicD2 (DDB) complex, the tethered motors move slowly with a slight plus-end bias, suggesting kinesin-1 overpowers DDB but DDB generates a substantial hindering load. Compared to kinesin-1, motors from the kinesin-2 and-3 families display a higher sensitivity to load in single-molecule assays and are thus predicted to be overpowered by dynein complexes in cargo transport. To test this prediction, we used a DNA scaffold to pair DDB with members of the kinesin-1,-2, and-3 families to recreate bidirectional transport in vitro, and tracked the motor pairs using two-channel TIRF microscopy. Unexpectedly, we find that when both kinesin and dynein are engaged and stepping on the microtubule, kinesin-1,-2, and-3 motors are able to effectively withstand hindering loads generated by DDB. Stochastic stepping simulations reveal that kinesin-2 and-3 motors compensate for their faster detachment rates under load with faster reattachment kinetics. The similar performance between the three kinesin transport families highlights how motor kinetics play critical roles in balancing forces between kinesin and dynein, and emphasizes the importance of motor regulation by cargo adaptors, regulatory proteins, and the microtu-bule track for tuning the speed and directionality of cargo transport in cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere82228
JournaleLife
Volume11
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Neuroscience
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology

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