Large-eddy simulations of a stratified-charge direct-injection spark-ignition engine: Comparison with experiment and analysis of cycle-to-cycle variations

Samuel J. Kazmouz, Daniel C. Haworth, Peter Lillo, Volker Sick

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Multiple-cycle large-eddy simulations (LES) were carried out for an optically accessible, single-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle, spray-guided direct-injection spark-ignition (SG-DISI) engine operating in a stratified globally fuel-lean mode. The simulations combine a standard Smagorinsky turbulence model, a stochastic Lagrangian parcel method for liquid fuel injection and fuel spray modeling, a simple energy-deposition spark-ignition model, and a modified thickened flame model for turbulent flame propagation through highly stratified reactant mixtures. LES was used to investigate combustion and cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) in the SG-DISI engine. Relatively simple models for liquid fuel injection, spray evolution, ignition, and turbulent flame propagation were combined, and simulation results were compared with experimental measurements. Comparisons between simulations and experiments included individual-cycle and ensemble-average pressure and apparent-heat-release-rate traces, individual-cycle and ensemble-average indicated mean effective pressures (IMEP), and instantaneous two-dimensional vapor-equivalence-ratio contours. Although the number of LES cycles was small (35), the results showed that the simulations are able to capture the global combustion behavior that is observed in the experiments, including CCV. The simulation results were then analyzed further to provide insight into the conditions that lead to misfire versus robust combustion. As has been reported in earlier experimental and LES studies for homogeneous-charge SI engines, local conditions in the vicinity of the spark gap at the time of ignition largely determine the subsequent flame development. However, in contrast to homogeneous-charge engines, no single local or global quantity correlates as strongly with the eventual peak pressure or IMEP for each cycle. Rather, it is the interplay among the early flame kernel, the velocity field that it experiences, and the fuel distribution that it encounters that ultimately determines the fate of each combustion event. Deeper analysis and quantitative statistical comparisons between experiments and simulations will require the simulation of larger numbers of engine cycles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5665-5672
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2021
Event38th International Symposium on Combustion, 2021 - Adelaide, Australia
Duration: Jan 24 2021Jan 29 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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