Laser Generated Broadband Rayleigh Waveform Evolution for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Monitoring

Chaitanya Bakre, Seyed Hamidreza Afzalimir, Cory Jamieson, Abdalla Nassar, Edward W. Reutzel, Cliff J. Lissenden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Featured Application: Process monitoring of additive manufacturing of metals for material nonlinearity using finite amplitude ultrasonic Rayleigh waves. This work proposes that laser pulses can generate finite amplitude Rayleigh waves for process monitoring during additive manufacturing. The noncontact process monitoring uses a pulsed laser to generate Rayleigh waves, and an adaptive laser interferometer to receive them. Experiments and models in the literature show that finite amplitude waveforms evolve with propagation distance and that shocks can even form in the in-plane particle velocity waveform. The nonlinear waveform evolution is indicative of the material nonlinearity, which is sensitive to the material microstructure, which in turn affects strength and fracture properties. The measurements are made inside a directed energy deposition additive manufacturing chamber on planar Ti-6Al-4V and IN-718 depositions. By detecting the out-of-plane particle displacement waveform, the in-plane displacement and velocity waveforms are also available. The waveform evolution can be characterized (i) for one source amplitude by reception at different points or (ii) by reception at one point by applying different source amplitudes. Sample results are provided for intentionally adjusted key process parameters: laser power, scan speed, and hatch spacing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number12208
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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