Non-enzymatic glucose sensors outperform enzymatic ones in terms of cost, sensitivity, stability, and operating duration. Though highly sensitive, it is still desirable to further improve the sensitivity of non-enzymatic glucose sensors to detect a trace amount of glucose in sweat and other biofluids. Among the demonstrated effective approaches using bimetals or 3D porous structures, the porous laser-induced graphene (LIG) on flexible polymers showcases good conductivity and a simple fabrication process for the integration of sensing materials. The uniform electroless plating of the nickel and gold layer on LIG electrodes demonstrates significantly enhanced sensitivity and a large linear range for glucose sensing. The sensor with the porous LIG foam exhibits a high sensitivity of 1080 μA mM−1 cm−2, whereas a further increased sensitivity of 3500 μA mM−1 cm−2 is obtained with LIG fibers (LIGF). Impressively, a large linear range (0–30 mM) can be achieved by changing the bias voltage from 0.5 to 0.1 V due to the Au coating. Because the existing non-enzymatic glucose sensors are limited to use in basic solutions, their application in wearable electronics is elusive. In addition to the reduced requirement for the basic solution, this work integrates a porous encapsulating reaction cavity containing alkali solutions with a soft, skin-interfaced microfluidic component to provide integrated microfluidic non-enzymatic glucose sensors for sweat sampling and glucose sensing. The accurate glucose measurements from the human sweat and cell culture media showcase the practical utility, which opens up opportunities for the non-enzymatic glucose sensors in wearable electronics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number113606
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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