Local-Field Effects in Linear Response Properties within a Polarizable Frozen Density Embedding Method

Aparna K. Harshan, Mark J. Bronson, Lasse Jensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


In this work, we present a polarizable frozen density embedding (FDE) method for calculating polarizabilities of coupled subsystems. The method (FDE-pol) combines a FDE method with an explicit polarization model such that the expensive freeze/thaw cycles can be bypassed, and approximate nonadditive kinetic potentials are avoided by enforcing external orthogonality between the subsystems. To describe the polarization of the frozen environment, we introduce a Hirshfeld partition-based density-dependent method for calculating the atomic polarizabilities of atoms in molecules, which alleviates the need to fit the atomic parameters to a specific system of interest or to a larger general set of molecules. We show that the Hirshfeld partition-based method predicts molecular polarizabilities close to the basis set limit, and thus, a single basis set-dependent scaling parameter can be introduced to improve the agreement against the reference polarizability data. To test the model, we characterized the uncoupled and coupled response of small interacting molecular complexes. Here, the coupled response properties include the perturbation of the frozen system due to the external perturbation which is ignored in the uncoupled response. We show that FDE-pol can accurately reproduce both the exact uncoupled polarizability and the coupled polarizabilities of the supermolecular systems. Using damped response theory, we also demonstrate that the coupled frequency-dependent polarizability can be described by including local field effects. The results emphasize the necessity of including local-field effects for describing the response properties of coupled subsystems, as well as the importance of accurate atomic polarizability models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)380-393
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 11 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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